Here are three sections from the Home tab in the ribbon (Sort & Filter, Records, and Find). When the Access window is wide, there is plenty of room to show buttons and text (top).
But if you resize the Access window down to a slim the ribbon removes text so it can keep showing the same set of commands.
If you want to know what a no-text button does, hover your cursor over it to see its name.
Table pane: In a query multiple tables may appear here. Advanced Filter/Sort allows you to work with only one table.
Query by Example (QBE) pane: Use this pane to define your filtered datasheet.
Table name and fields: The table that you are filtering appears here with all fields listed. (You may have to use the scrollbar to see them all.)